Cybersecurity Risk Assessments

FortiEDR online security

Cybersecurity risk assessments Reading time: 12 mins

In an increasingly digital world, protecting your organization from cyber threats has never been more critical. Cybersecurity risk assessments play a vital role in identifying and mitigating risks to your organization’s information assets. These assessments help business owners, CFOs, CROs, and IT Directors proactively address vulnerabilities and ensure compliance with applicable laws, regulations, and industry standards. In this article, we’ll explore various types of cybersecurity risk assessments, their processes, and their benefits, with a focus on the Manufacturing, Healthcare, and Professional Services sectors. We’ll prioritize the Cybersecurity Maturity Model Certification (CMMC) framework, discuss relevant US laws and regulations, and provide a brief introduction to cybersecurity risk assessments for readers new to the concept.

What is a Cyber Security Risk Assessment?

A cybersecurity risk assessment is a systematic process that identifies, evaluates, and prioritizes risks associated with an organization’s information systems and assets. It helps organizations understand the likelihood and impact of potential threats, guiding them in making informed decisions about implementing security measures and allocating resources effectively. Conducting regular risk assessments enables organizations to stay ahead of emerging threats, comply with industry-specific regulations, and maintain customer trust.

Types of Cyber Security Risk Assessments

There are several types of cybersecurity risk assessments, each with its approach and focus. Here, we’ll discuss three primary types – vulnerability assessments, penetration testing, and CMMC assessments – and their applicability to the Manufacturing, Healthcare, and Professional Services sectors.

Vulnerability Assessment

A vulnerability assessment is an in-depth evaluation of an organization’s information systems, identifying and classifying potential weaknesses that could be exploited by cybercriminals. The assessment typically involves automated scanning tools and manual techniques to discover vulnerabilities in software, hardware, network devices, and other digital assets.


  • Asset Identification: Catalog and prioritize the organization’s information assets, systems, and network devices.
  • Vulnerability Scanning: Use automated tools and manual techniques to identify vulnerabilities.
  • Vulnerability Analysis: Analyze the findings, determining the severity and potential impact of each vulnerability.
  • Reporting and Remediation: Document the vulnerabilities, recommend remediation actions, and track the implementation of those actions.


  • Comprehensive view of your organization’s vulnerabilities
  • Proactive identification and mitigation of weaknesses
  • Improved overall security posture
  • Penetration Testing

Penetration testing, also known as ethical hacking, is a controlled process where security professionals simulate real-world cyberattacks to evaluate the effectiveness of an organization’s security measures. This type of assessment is more focused than vulnerability assessments, as it aims to exploit identified weaknesses and uncover potential attack paths.


  • Planning and Scoping: Define the scope, objectives, and rules of engagement for the penetration test.
  • Reconnaissance: Gather information about the target systems and network.
  • Vulnerability Analysis: Identify potential vulnerabilities and select targets for exploitation.
  • Exploitation: Attempt to exploit identified vulnerabilities and gain unauthorized access.
  • Reporting and Remediation: Document the findings, demonstrate the potential impact of exploited vulnerabilities, and recommend remediation actions.


  • Validates the effectiveness of existing security measures
  • Identifies previously unknown vulnerabilities and attack paths
  • Provides a real-world perspective on potential threats

CMMC Assessment

The Cybersecurity Maturity Model Certification (CMMC) is a unified cybersecurity standard designed for organizations working with the United States Department of Defense (DoD). CMMC assessments evaluate an organization’s compliance with the CMMC framework, which consists of five maturity levels, each with specific security practices and processes.


  • Pre-assessment: Understand the CMMC framework and determine the appropriate maturity level for your organization.
  • Gap Analysis: Compare your organization’s current cybersecurity practices against the required practices for the desired maturity level.
  • Remediation: Implement the necessary changes to align your organization with the CMMC requirements.
  • Certification Assessment: Engage a Certified Third-Party Assessment Organization (C3PAO) to conduct an independent assessment and validate your organization’s compliance.
  • Continuous Monitoring and Improvement: Maintain and improve your organization’s cybersecurity practices to ensure ongoing compliance with the CMMC framework.


  • Ensures compliance with DoD requirements
  • Enhances cybersecurity practices and maturity
  • Provides a competitive advantage for organizations seeking DoD contracts
  • Focus on Sectors: Manufacturing, Healthcare, and Professional Services

Use Cases for Cybersecurity Risk Assessments

  • Manufacturing: Manufacturing organizations face unique cybersecurity challenges due to their reliance on industrial control systems (ICS) and operational technology (OT). Conducting vulnerability assessments and penetration tests in these environments is crucial for identifying and addressing potential threats to critical infrastructure. Compliance with the CMMC framework is essential for manufacturers working with the DoD, while other industry standards, such as the NIST Cybersecurity Framework and ISO/IEC 27001, provide guidance for safeguarding sensitive information.
  • Healthcare: The Healthcare sector is an attractive target for cybercriminals due to the sensitive nature of patient data and the increasing adoption of connected medical devices. Vulnerability assessments and penetration tests help healthcare organizations identify potential weaknesses in their networks and applications, reducing the risk of data breaches and ensuring the security of patient information. Compliance with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and the Health Information Trust Alliance (HITRUST) framework is vital for protecting patient data and avoiding regulatory fines.
  • Professional Services: Professional services firms, such as law firms, accounting firms, and consulting firms, handle sensitive client information and intellectual property, making them prime targets for cyberattacks. Regular vulnerability assessments and penetration tests can help these organizations identify potential attack vectors and strengthen their security posture. In addition to the CMMC framework for those working with the DoD, professional services firms should also consider compliance with industry-specific regulations and standards, such as the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) for European clients or the American Bar Association (ABA) Model Rules for law firms.

Relevant US Laws, Regulations, and Industry Standards

Compliance with applicable laws, regulations, and industry standards is a critical aspect of an organization’s cybersecurity risk management strategy. Some of the most relevant regulations and standards for the Manufacturing, Healthcare, and Professional Services sectors include:

  • Cybersecurity Maturity Model Certification (CMMC): A mandatory cybersecurity standard for organizations working with the US Department of Defense.
  • Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA): A US federal law that governs the protection of sensitive patient data in the healthcare sector.
  • Health Information Trust Alliance (HITRUST): A comprehensive, certifiable cybersecurity framework tailored for the healthcare industry.
  • NIST Cybersecurity Framework: A voluntary framework developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to help organizations manage and reduce cybersecurity risk.
  • ISO/IEC 27001: An internationally recognized standard for information security management systems (ISMS).


Cybersecurity risk assessments are crucial for organizations in the Manufacturing, Healthcare, and Professional Services sectors to identify, evaluate, and prioritize risks associated with their information systems and assets. By conducting regular vulnerability assessments, penetration tests, and CMMC assessments, organizations can proactively address vulnerabilities, ensure compliance with industry-specific regulations, and maintain customer trust. Understanding the unique cybersecurity challenges faced by each sector and implementing appropriate risk management strategies will help protect your organization from ever-evolving cyber threats.  Nexigen performs Cybersecurity Risk Assessments as a trusted partner for 100’s of organizations and would love to hear from you and how we can help you on your journey!

Nexigen Can Help.
Request Your Free Consultation

Request Your Free Consultation

Fill out this form for a free consultation with a care representative.

Our team is here to make your life easier when you need help. That’s why our customers give us high ★★★★★ satisfaction ratings.